The Factories Act, 1948 (Act No. 63 of 1948), as amended by the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987 (Act 20 of 1987)


 

CONTENTS

 

     CHAPTER 1.- Preliminary

     CHAPTER II.- The Inspecting Staff

     CHAPTER Ill.- Health

     CHAPTER IV.- Safety

     CHAPTER I VA.Provisions relating to Hazardous processes

     CHAPTER V.- Welfare

     CHAPTER VI.- Working hours of adults

     CHAPTER VII .Employment of young persons

     CHAPTER VIII.- Annual leave with wages

     CHAPTER IX.- Special provisions

     CHAPTER X.- Penalties and procedure

     CHAPTER XI.- Supplemental


 

CHAPTER I.- Preliminary

Section 1. Short title, extent and commencement. -

 

(1)   This Act may be called the Factories Act, 1948.

(2)   It extends to the whole of India

(3)   It shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 1949.

 

Section 2. Interpretation.-

 

In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,-

 

     (a) "adult" means a person who has completed his eighteenth year of age;

     (b) "adolescent" means a person, who has completed his fifteenth year of age but has not completed his eighteenth year;

     (bb) "calendar year" means the period of twelve months beginning  with the first day of January in any year;

     (c) "child" means a person who has not completed his fifteenth year of age;

     (ca) "competent person", in relation to any provision of this Act, means  a  person  or an institution recognised as such by the Chief Inspector for the purposes of carrying out tests, examinations and inspections required to be done in a factory under the provisions of this Act having regard to-


o    (i) the qualifications and experience of the person and facilities available at his disposal, or

o    (ii) the qualifications and experience of the persons employed in such institution and facilities available therein, with regard to the conduct of such tests, examinations and inspections, and more than one person or institution can be recognised as a competent person in relation to a factory;

     (cb) "hazardous process" means any process or activity in relation to an industry specified in the 'First Schedule where, unless special care is taken, raw materials used therein or the intermediate or finished products, bye-products, wastes or effluents thereof would-

(i) cause material impairment to the health of the persons engaged in or connected therewith, or

o    (ii) result in the pollution of the general environment:

 

Provided that the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, amend the First Schedule by way of addition, omission or variation  of any industry specified in the said Schedule;

 

     (d) "young person" means a person, who is either a child or an adolescent;

     (e) "day" means a period of twenty-four hours beginning at midnight;

     (f) "week" means a period of seven days beginning at  midnight  on Saturday  night or such other night as may  be approved  in  writing for a particular  area  by the Chief Inspector of Factories;

     (g) "power" means electrical energy, or any other form of energy, which is mechanically transmitted and is not generated, by human or animal agency;

     (h) "prime-mover" means any engine, motor  or other appliance,  which generates  or otherwise provides power;

     (i) "transmission machinery" means any shift, wheel, drum, pulley, system of pulleys, coupling, clutch, driving belt or other appliance or device by which the motion of a prime-mover is transmitted to or received by any machinery or appliance;

     (j) "machinery" includes prime-movers, transmission machinery and all other appliances, whereby power is generated, transformed, transmitted or applied;

     (k) "manufacturing process" means any process for-

(i) making, altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing, packing, oiling, washing, cleaning, breaking up, demolishing or otherwise treating or adopting any article or substance with a view to its use, sale, transport, delivery or disposal; or

o    (ii) pumping oil, water, sewage, or any other substance; or

o    (iii) generating, transforming or transmitting power; or

o    (iv) composing types for printing, printing by letter press, lithography, photogravure or other similar process or book-binding; or

o    (v) constructing, reconst ruct ing 11 repairing, refitting, finishing or breaking up ships or vessels; or

o    (vi) preserving or storing any article in cold storage ;

     (I) "worker" means a person employed directly or by or through any agency (including a contractor) with or without the knowledge of the principal employer whether for remuneration or not in any manufacturing process, or in cleaning any part of the machinery or premises used for a manufacturing process, or in any other kind of work incidental to, or connected with the manufacturing process, or


the subject of the manufacturing process but does not include any member of the armed forces of the Union;

     (m) "factory" means any premises including the precincts thereof-

o    (i) whereon ten or more workers are working, or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on with the aid of power, or is ordinarily so carried on, or

o    (ii) whereon twenty or more workers are working, or were working on any  day of the preceding twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on without the aid of power, or is ordinarily so carried on,- but does not include a mine subject to the operation of the Mines Act, 1952 (XXXV of 1952) or a mobile unit belonging to the armed forces of the Union, a railway running shed or a hotel, restaurant or eating place;

 

Explanation J.---For computing the number of workers for the purposes of this clause all the workers in different groups and relays in a day shall be taken into account;

 

Explanation JJ.---For the purposes of this clause, the mere fact that an Electronic Data Processing Unit or a Computer Unit is installed in any premises or part thereof, shall not be construed to make it a factory if no manufacturing process is being carried on in such premises or part thereof ;

 

     (n) "occupier" of a factory means the person, who has ultimate control over the affairs of the factory,

 

Provided that-

 

     (i) in the case of a firm or other association of individuals, any one of the individual partners or members thereof shall be deemed to be the occupier;

     (ii) in the case of a company, any one of the directors,  shall be deemed to be the occupier:

     (iii) in the case of a factory owned or controlled by  the  Central Government or any State Government, or any  local authority,  the person or persons appointed to manage the affairs of the factory by the Central Government, the State Government or the  local authority,  as the  case may be, shall be deemed to be the occupier :

 

Provided further that in the case of  a ship  which  is being  repaired, or on which maintenance work is being carried out, in a dry dock which is available for hire,

 

(1)   the owner of the dock shall be deemed to be the occupier for the purposes of any matter provided for by or under-

 

     (a) section 6, section 7, section 7A, section 7B, section 11 or section 12;

     (b) section 17, in so far as it relates to the providing and maintenance of sufficient and suitable lighting in or around the dock;

     (e) section 18, section 19, section 42, section 46,  section 47 or section 49, in relation to the workers employed on such repair or maintenance;


(2)   the owner of the ship or his agent or master or other officer-in-charge of the ship or any person who contracts with such owner, agent or master or other officer-in-charge to carry out the repair or maintenance work shall be deemed to be the occupier for the purposes of any matter provided for by or under section 13, section 14, section 16 or section 17 (save as otherwise provided in this proviso) or Chapter IV (except section 27) or section 43, section 44 or section 45, Chapter VI, Chapter VII, Chapter VIII or Chapter IX or section 108, section 109 or section 110, in relation to-

 

     (a) the workers employed directly by him or by or through any agency; and

     (b) the machinery, plant or premises in use for the purpose of carrying out such repair or maintenance work by such owner, agent, master or other officer-in-charge or person ;

 

     (o) [Omitted];

     (p) "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made by the State Government under this Act;

     (q) [Omitted];

     (r) where work of the same kind is carried out by two or more  sets of  workers working during different periods of the day, each of such sets is called a "group" or "relay" and each of such periods is called a "shift".

Section 3. Reference to time of day.-

In this Act references to time of day are references to Indian Standard Time being five and a half hours, ahead of Greenwich Mean Time:

 

Provided that for any area in which Indian Standard Time is not ordinarily observed the State Government may make rules-

 

     (a) specifying the area,

     (b) defining the local mean time ordinarily observed therein, and

     (c) permitting such time to be observed in all or any ofthe factories situated in the area.

Section 4. Power to declare different departments to be separate factories or two or more factories to be a single factory.-

The State Government may, on its own or on an application made in this behalf by an occupier, direct by an order in writing and subject to such conditions as it may deem fit, that for all or any of the purposes of this Act different departments or branches of a factory of the occupier specified in the application shall be treated as separate factories or that two or more factories of the occupier specified in the application shall be treated as a single factory.

 

Provided that no order under this section shall be made bythe State Government on its own motion unless an opportunity of being heard is given to the occupier.

Section 5. Power to exempt during public emergency.-

In any case of a public emergency the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, exempt any factory or class or description of factories from all or any


of the provisions of this Act except section 67 for such period and subject to such conditions as it may think fit:

 

Provided that no such notification shall be made for a period exceeding three months at a time.

 

Explanation. - For the purposes of this section 'public emergency' means a grave emergency whereby the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, whether by war or external aggression or internal disturbance.

Section 6. Approval, licensing and registration of factories.-

( l) The State Government may make rules-

(a)   requiring for the purposes of this Act, the submission of plans of any class or description of factories to the Chief Inspector or the State Government ;

 

     (aa) requiring the previous permission in writing of the State Government or the Chief Inspector to be obtained for the site on which the factory  is to  be situated and for the construction or extension of any factory or class or description of factories;

     (b) requiring for the purpose of considering applications for such permission the submission of plans and specificatioqns;

     (c) prescribing the nature of such plans and specifications and by whom they shall  be certified;

     (d) requiring the registration and licensing offactories,  or any class or  description of factories, and prescribing the fees payable for such registration  and licensing and for the renewal of licences;

     (e) requiring that no licence shall be granted or renewed unless the notice specified in section 7 has been given.

 

(2)   If on an application for permission referred to in clause (aa) of sub-section (1) accompanied by the plans and specifications required by the rules made under clause

(b)   of that sub-section, sent to the State Government or Chief Inspector by registered post, no order is communicated to the applicant within three months from the date on which it is so sent, the permission applied for in the said application shall be deemed to have been granted.

(3)    Where a State Government or a Chief Inspector refuses to grant permission to the site, construction or extension of a factory or to the registration and  licensing  of  a factory, the  applicant  may  within thirty  days from  the date of such refusal, appeal  to the Central Government if the decision appealed for  was of the  State Government, and to the State Government in any other case.

Explanation. - A factory shall not be deemed to be extended within the meaning of this section by reason only of the replacement of any plant or machinery,  or  within  such limils as may be prescribed, of the addition of any plant or machinery. If  such replacement or addition does not reduce the minimum clear space required for safe working around the plant or machinery or adversely affect the environment  conditions from the evolution or emission of steam, heat or dust or Iumes which are injurious to health.

Section 7. Notice by occupier.-


(1)    The occupier shall, at least fifteen days before he begins to occupy or, use any premises as a factory, send to the Chief Inspector a written notice containing-

 

     (a) the name and situation of the factory;

     (b) the name and address of the occupier;

     (bb) the name and address of the owner of the premises or building (including the precincts thereof ) referred to in section 93;

     (c) the address io which communication relating to the factory may be sent;

     (d) the nature of the manufacturing process-

o    (i) carried on in the factory during the last twelve months in the case offactories in existence on the date of the commencement of this Act, and

o    (ii) to be carried on in the factory during the next twelve months in the case of all factories;

     (e) the total rated horse power installed or to be installed in the factory, which shall not include the rated horse power of any separate standby plant;

     (f) the name of the manager of the factory for the purposes of this Act;

     (g) the number of workers likely to be employed in the factory:

     (h) the average number of workers per day employed  during  the  last twelve months in the case of a factory in existence on the date of the commencement of this Act;

     (i) such other particulars as may be prescribed.

 

(2)    In respect of all establishments, which come within the scope of the Act for the first time the occupier shall send a written notice to the Chief Inspector containing the particulars specified in sub-section (1) within thirty days from the date of the commencement of this Act.

 

(3)    Before a factory engaged in a manufacturing  process  which is ordinarily carried out for less than one hundred and eighty working days in the year, resumes working, the occupier shall send a written notice to the Chief Inspector containing the particulars specified in sub-section (1)  that least thirty  days before the  date of the  commencement of work.

(4)    Whenever a new manager is appointed, the cccupies shall send to the Inspector a written notice and to the Chief Inspector a copy thereof within seven days from the date on which such person takes over charge.

 

(5)    During a period for  which no person has been designated  as manager  of a  factory or during which the person designated does not manage the factory, any person found acting as manager, or if  no such person is found, the occupier  himself, shall be deemed to be the manager of the factory for the purposes of this Act.


 

CHAPTER II   The Inspecting Staff

 

Section 7A. General duties of the occupier.-

Cl) Every occupier shall ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and w,elfare of all workers while they are at work in the factory.

 

(2)    Without prejudice to the  generality  of the provisions of sub-section  (1), the matters  to which such duty extends, shall include-


     (a) the provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work in the  factory  that  are safe and without risks to health;

     (b) the arrangement in the factory for ensuring safety and absence of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances;

     (c) the provision of such information, instruction, training and supervisions as are necessary to ensure the health and safety of all workers at work;

     (d) the maintenance of all places of work in the factory in a condition that is safe  and without risks to health and the provision and maintenance of such means of access to, and egress from, such place as are safe and without such risks;

     (e) the provision, maintenance or monitoring of such working environment in the factory for the workers that is safe, without risks  to  health  and adequate  as regards facilities and arrangements for their welfare at work.

(3)   Except in such cases as may be prescribed, every occupier shall prepare, and, as often as may be appropriate, revise, a written statement of his general policy  with respect to the health and safety of the workers at work and the organisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out thatpolicy, and to bring the statement and any revision thereof to the notice of all the workers in such manner  as may be prescribed.

Section 7B. General duties of manufacturers, etc., as regards articles and sub­ stancesfor use in factories.-

(1)   Every person who designs, manufactures, imports or supplies any article for use in any factory shall-

     (a) ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the article is so designed and constructed as to be safe and withovt risks to the health of the workers when properly used;

     (b) carry out or arrange for tlle carrying out of such tests and examination as may be considered necessary for the effective implementation of the provisions of clause (a);

     (c) take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that adequate  information  will be available-

o     (i)  in  connection  with the use of the  article in  any  factory;

o     (ii) about the use for  which it  is designed  and tested;   and

o     (iii) about any conditions necessary to ensure that the article, when put to such use, will be safe, and without risks to the health of the workers:

Provided that where an article is designed or manufactured outside India, it shall be obligatory on the part of the importer to see-

     (a) that the article conforms to the same standards if such article is manufactuted in India, or

     (b) if the standards adopted in the country outside for the manufacture of such article is above the standards adopted in India, that the article conforms to such standards

(2)   Every person, who undertakes to design or manufacture any article for use in any factory, may carry out or arrange for the carrying out of necessary research with a view to the discovery and, so far as is reasonably practicable, the elimination or


minimisation of any risks to the health or safety of the workers to which the design or article may give rise.

 

(3)    Nothing contained in sub-sections (1)  and (2)  shall be construed  to  require a person to repeat the testing examination or research which has been carried out otherwise than by him or at his instance on so far as it is reasonable for him to  rely on  the results thereof for the purposes of the said sub-sections.

 

(4)   And duty imposed on any person by sub-sections (1) and (2) shall extend only to things done in the course of business carried on by him and to matters  within his control.

 

(5)    Where a person designs, manufactures, imports or supplies an aricle on the  basis of  a written undertaking by the user of such article to take the steps specified in such undertaking to ensure, so far as is reasonably  practicable,  that the article  will be. safe and without risks to the health of  the  workers  when  properly  used,  the  undertaking shall have the effect of relieving the person designing, manufacturing, importing or supplying the article from the duty imposed by clause (a) of sub-section  (1)  to  such extent as is reasonably having regard to the terms of the undertaking.

 

(6)   For the purposes  of this section, an article is not to be regarded as properly  used if  it is used without regard to any information or advice relating to its use which as been made available by the person who has designed, manufactured,  imported  or supplied the article.

Section 8. Inspectors.-

(1)   The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint such persons as possessing the prescribed qualification to be Inspectors for the purposes of this Act and may assign to them such local limits as it may think fit.

 

(2)   The State Government may, by notification in the Offlcial Gazette, appoint any person to be a Chief Inspector who shall, in addition to powers conferred on Chief Inspector under this Act, exercise the powers of an Inspector throughout the State.

 

(2A) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,  appoint  as many Additional Chief Inspectors, Joint Chief Inspectors and Deputy Chief Inspectors and as many other officers as it thinks fit to assist the Chief Inspector and to exercise such of the powers of the Chief Inspector as may be specified in such notification.

 

(2B) Every additional Chief Inspector, Joint Chief Inspector, Deputy Chief Inspector and every other officer appointment under sub-section  (2A)  shall, in addition  to the  powers of a Chief Inspector specified in the notification by which he is appointed, exercise the power of an Inspector throughout the State.

 

(3)    No person shall be appointed under  sub-section  (1), sub-section  (2), sub-section (2A) or sub-section  (5), or having been so appointed,  shall continue to  hold office, who  is or becomes directly or indirectly interested in a factory or in any process or business carried on therein or in any patent or machinery connected therewith.

 

(4)   Every District Magistrate shall be an Inspector for his district.


(5)   The State Government may also, by notification as aforesaid, appoint such public officers as it thinks fit to be additional Inspectors for all or any of the purposes of this  Act, within such local limits as it may assign to them respectively.

 

(6)   In any area where  there are more Inspectors  than one the  State Government  may, by notification as aforesaid, declare the powers which such Inspectors shall respectively exercise and the Inspector to whom the prescribed notices are to be sent.

 

(7)   Every Chief Inspector, Additional Chief Inspector, Joint Chief Inspector, Deputy Chief Inspector, Inspector and every other officer appointed under  this section,  shall  be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of the Indian Penal Code  (XLV  of 1860), and shall be offlcially subordinate  to  such  authority  as the  State Government may specify in this behalf.

 

Section 9. Powers of Inspectors.-

Subject to any rules made in this behalf, an Inspector may, within the local limits for which he is appointed,-

 

     (a) enter with such assistants, being persons in the service of the Government, or any local or other public authority or with an expert, as he thinks fit, anyplace which is used, or which he has reason to believe, is used as a factory;

     (b) make examination of the premises, plant, machinery, article or substance;

     (c) inquire into any accident or dangerous occurrence, whether resulting in bodily injury, disability or not, and take on the spot  or  otherwise  statements  of any person which he may consider necessary for such inquiry;

     (d) require the production of any prescribed register or any other document relating to the factory;

     (e) seize, or take copies of, any register, record or other document or any portion thereof, as he may consider necessary in respect of any offence under this Act, which he has reason to believe, has been committed;

     (f) direct the occupier that any premises or any part thereof, or anything  lying therein, shall be left undisturbed (whether generally  or in partticular  respects)  for so long as is necessary for the purpose of any examination under clause (b);

     (g) take measurements and photographs and make such recordings as he considers necessary for the purpose of any examination under clause (b), taking with him any necessary instrument or equipment;

     (h) in case of any article of substance found in any premises, being an article or substance which appears to him as having caused or is likely to cause danger to the health or safety of the workers, direct it to be dismantled or subject it to any process or test (but not so as to damage or destroy it unless the same is, in the circumstances necessary, for carrying out the purposes of this Act), and take possession of any such article or substance or a part thereof, and detain it for so long as is necessary for such examination;

     (i) exercise such other powers as may be prescribed.

Section 10. Certifying Surgeons.-

Cl) The State Government may appoint qualified medical practitioners to be certifying surgeons for the purposes  of this Act within such local limits or for such  factory  or class or description of factories as it may assign to them respectively.


(2)    A certifying surgeon may, with the approval of the State Government, authorise any qualified medical practitioner to exercise any of his powers under this Act for such period as the certifying surgeon may specify and subject to such conditions as the

State Government may think fit to impose, and references in this Act to a certifying surgeon shall be deemed to include references to any qualified medical practitioner when so authorised.

(3)    No person shall be appointed to be, or authorised to exercise the powers of, a certifying surgeon, or having been so appointed or authorised, continue to exercise such powers, who is or becomes the occupier of a factory or is or becomes directly or indirectly interested therein or in any process or business carried on therein or in any patent or machinery connected therewith or is otherwise in the employ of the factory:

 

Provided that the State Government may, by order in writing and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the order exempt any person or class of persons from the provisions of this sub-section in respect of any factory or class or description of factories.

 

(4)    ) The certifying surgeon shall carry out  such  duties as may  be prescribed in connection with-

 

     (a) the examination and certification of young persons under this Act;

     (b) the examination of persons engaged in factories in such dangerous Occupations or processes as may be prescribed;

     (c) the exercising of such medical supervisions as may be prescribed for any factory or class or description of factories where-

o    (i) cases of illness have occurred, which it is reasonable to believe are due to the nature of the manufacturing process carried on, or  other  conditions  of work prevailing, therein;

o    (ii) by reason of any change in the manufacturing process carried on or in the substances used therein or by reason of the adoption of any new manufacturing process, or of any new substance for use in a manufacturing process, there is a likelihood of injury to the health of workers employed in that manufacturing process;

o    (iii) young persons are, or are about to be, employed in any work which is likely to cause injury to their health.

 

Explanation. - In this section "qualified medical practitioner" means a person holding a qualification granted by an authority specified in the Schedule to the Indian Medical Degrees Act, 1916 (VII of 1916), or in the Schedule to the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933 (XXVIl of 1933).


 

CHAPTER  III.- Health

Section 11. Cleanliness.-

Cl) Every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia! arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance, and in particular-

 

     (a) accumulation of dirt and refuse shall be removed daily by sweeping or by any other effective method from the floors and benches of workrooms and from


staircases and passages and disposed of in a suitable manner;

    (b) the filoor of every workroom shall be cleaned at least once in every week by washing, using disinfectant where necessary, or by some other effective method;

    (c) where a floor is liable to become wet in the course of any manufacturing process to such extent as is capable of being drained, effective means of drainage shall be provided as maintained;

o    d) all inside walls and partitions, all ceilings or tops of rooms and all walls, sides and tops of passages and staircases shall- (i) where they are 'tpainted otherwise than with washable water paint or varnished, be repainted or revarnished at least once in every period of five years;

o    (i-a) where they are painted with washable water paint, be repainted with at least one coat of such paint at least once in every period ofthree years and washed at least once in every period of six months;

o    (ii) where they are painted or varnished or where they have smooth impervious surfaces, be cleaned at least one in every period of fourteen months by such methods as may be prescribed;

o    (iii) in any other case, be kept whitewashed, or colour washed, and the whitewashing or colourwashing shall be carried out at least once in every period of fourteen months;

    (dd) all doors and window-frames and other wooden or metallic framework and shutters shall be kept painted or varnished and the painting or varnishing shall be carried out at least once in every period of five years;

    (e) the dates on which the processes required by clause (d)  are carried out  shall be entered in the prescribed register.

(2) If, in view of the nature of the operations carried  on in  a  factory  or class or description of factories or any part of a factory or class  or description  of factories,  it  is not possible for the occupier to  comply  with all or any of the  provisions  of sub-section (1), the State Government may by order exempt such factory or class or descriptien of factories or part from any of the provisions of that sub-section and specify alternative methods for keeping the factory in a clean state.

Section 12. Disposal of wastes and effluents.-

(1)   Effective arrangements shall be made in every factory for the treatment of wastes and effluents due to the manufacturing process carried on therein, so as to render them innocuous, and for their disposal.

(2)   The State Government may make rules prescribing the arrangements to be made under sub-section (1) or requiring that the arrangements made in accordance with sub­ section (1) shall be approved by such authority as may be prescribed.

Section 13. Ventilation and temperature.-

(1)   Effect and suitable provisions shall be made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every workroom-

     (a) adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air, and

     (b) such a temperature as will secure to workers therein reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health; and in particular,

o    (i) walls and roofs shall be of such material and so designed that such temperature shall not be exceeded but kept as low as practicable;


o    (ii) where the nature of the work carried on in the factories involves, or is likely to involve, the production of excessively high temperature, such adequate measures as are practicable shall be taken to protect the workers therefrom, by separating the process, which produces such temperature from the workroom, by insulating the hot parts or by other effective means.

 

(2)   The State Government may prescribe a standard of adequate ventilation and reasonable temperature for any factory or class or  description  of factories  or  parts thereof and direct that proper measuring instruments, at  such  places  and in  such position as may be specified, shall be provided and such records, as may be prescribed, shall be maintained.

(3)   If it appears to the Chief Inspector that excessively high temperature  in any factory can be reduced by the adoption of suitable measures, he may, without prejudice to the rules made under sub-section (2), serve on the occupier, an  order in  writing specifying the measures which, in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to  be carried out before a specified date.

Section 14. Dust and fume.-

Cl) In every factory in which, by reason of the manufacturing process carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a nature and to such an extent as is likely to be injurious or offensive to the workers employed therein, or any dust in substantial quantities, effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation in any workroom, and if any exhaust appliance is necessary for this purpose, it shall be applied as near as possible to the point of origin of the dust, fume or other impurity, and such point shall be enclosed so far as possible.

 

(2)   In any factory no stationary internal  combustion  engine  shall  be operated  unless the exhaust is conducted into the open air, and no other  internal  combustion  engine shall be operated in any room ualess effective measures  have been taken to  prevent such accumulation offumes therefrom as are  likely to be injurious to  workers employed  in the room.

Section 15. Artificial humidification.-

Cl) In respect of all factories in which the humidity  of the air is artificially  increased, the State Government may make rules,-

 

     (a) prescribing standards of humidification;

     (b) regulatingthe methods used for artificially increasing the humidity of the air;

     (c) directing prescribed tests for determining the humidityof the air to be correctly carried out and recorded;

     (d) prescribing methods to be adopted for securing adequate ventilation and cooling of the air in the workrooms.

 

(2)   In any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the  water used for the purpose shall be taken from a public supply, or other source of drinking water, or shall he effectively purified before it is so used.

 

(3)   If it appears to an Inspector that the water used in a factory for increasing humidity which is required to be effectively purified  under  sub-section  (2)  is not  effectively purified he may serve on the manager of the factory an order in writing, specifying the


measures which in his opinion should be adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before specified date.

Section 16. Overcrowding.-

No room in any factory shall be overcrowded to an extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein.

(2)   Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), there shall be in every workroom of a factory in existence on the date of commencement of this Act at least

9.9 cubic metres and of a factory built after the commencement ofthis Act at least 14.2 cubic metres of space for every worker employed therein, and for the purposes of this sub-section no account shall be taken of  anyspace  which  is more than  4.2  metres above the level of the fioor of the room.

(3)   If the Chief Inspector by order in writing so requires, there shall be posted in each workroom of a factory a notice specifying  the  maximum  number  of workers  who may, in compliance with the Provisions of this section, be employed in the room.

(4)   The Chief Inspector may, by order in writing exempt, subject to such conditions, if any, as he may thing fit to impose, any workroom from the provisions of this section, if he is satisfied that compliance therewith in respect of the room is unnecessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein.

Section 17. Lighting.-

(1)   In every part of a factory where workers are working or passing, there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial, or both.

(2)   In every factory all glazed windows and skylights used for the lighting of the workroom shall be kept clean on both the inner and outer surfaces and, so far as compliance with the provisions of any rules made under sub-section (3) of section 13  will allow, free from obstruction.

(3)   In every factory effective provision shall, so far as is practicable, be made for the prevention of-

     (a) glare, either directly from a source of light or by reflection from a smooth or polished surface;

     (b) the formation of shadows  to  such an extent as to  cause eye-strain  or the risk of accident to any worker.

(4)   ) The State Government may prescribe standards of sufficient and suitable lighting for factories or for any class or description offactories or for any manufacturing process.

Section 18. Drinking water.-

(1)  In every factory effective arrangements shall be made to provide and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers employed  therein  a  sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water.


(2)   All such points shall be legibly marked "drinking water" in a language understood by a majority of the workers employed in the factory and no such points shall be situated within l[six metres of any washing place, urinal, latrine, spittoon, open drain carrying sullage or effluent or any other source of contamination unless a shorter distance is approved in writing by the Chief Inspector.

(3)  In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed, provisions shall be made for cooling drinking water during hot weather by effective means and for distribution thereof.

(4)  In respect of all factories or any class or description of factories the State Government may make rules for securing compliance with the provisions of sub­ sections (1), (2) and (3) and for the examination by prescribed authorities of the supply and distribution of drinking water in factories.

Section 19. Latrines and urinals.-

(1)   In every factory-

     (a) sufficient latrine and urinal accommodation of prescribed types shall be provided conveniently situated and accessible to workers at all times  while they are at the factory;

     (b) separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and female workers;

     (c) such accommodation shall be adequately  lighted and ventilated  and no latrine  or urinal shall, unless specially exempted in writing by the Chief Inspector, communicate with any workroom except through an intervening open space or ventilated passage;

     (d) all such accommodation shall be maintained  in a clean  and sanitary  condition at all times;

     (e) sweepers shall be employed whose primary duty it would be to keep clean all latrines, urinals and washing places.

(2)   In every factory wherein more than twohundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed-

     (a) all latrine and urinal accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitary types;

     (b) the floors and internal walls, up to a height of ninety centimetres of the latrines and urinals and the sanitary blocks shall be laid in glazed tiles or otherwise finished to provide a smooth polished impervious surface;

     (c) without prejudice to the provisions of clauses (d) and (e) of sub-section (1), the floors, portions of the walls and blocks so laid or finished and the sanitary pans of latrines and urinals shall be thoroughly washed and cleaned at least once in every seven days with suitable detergents or disinfectants or with both.

(3)   The State Government may prescribe the number of latrines and urinals to  be provided in any factory in proportion to the number of  male  and  female  workers ordinarily employed therein, and provide for  such  further  matters  in  respect  of sanitation in factories, including the obligation of workers in this regard, as it considers necessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein.

Section 20. Spittoons.-


(1)    In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons in convenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition.

 

(2)    The State Government may make rules prescribing the type and numbers of spittoons to be provided and their location in any factory and provide for such further matters relating to their maintenance in a clean and hygienic condition.

 

(3)    No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the spittoons provided for the purpose and a notice containing this provision and the penalty for its violation shall be prominently displayed at suitable places in the premises.

 

(4)    ) Whoever spits in contravention of sub-section  (3)  shall be punishable  with  fine not exceeding five rupees.