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CHAPTER IV.- Safety

 

Section 21. Fencing of machinery.-

Cl) In every factory the following, namely-

     (i) every moving part of a prime-mover and every fiywheel connected to a prime- mover, whether the prime-mover or flywheel is in the engine-house or not;

     (ii) the headrace and tailrace of every water-wheel and water-turbine;

     (iii) any part of a stock bar which projects beyond the head stock of a lathe; and

     (iv) unless they are in such position or of such construction as to be safe to every person employed in the factory as they would be if they were securely fenced, the following, namely:-

o    (a) every part of an electric generator, a motor or rotary convertor;

o    (b) every part of transmission machinery; and

o    (c) every dangerous part of any other machinery; shall be securely fenced by safeguards of a substantial construction which shall be constantly maintained and kept in position while the parts of machinery they  are fencing,  are in motion or in use:

 

Provided that for the purpose of determining whether any part of machinery in such position or is of such construction as to be safe as aforesaid, account  shall not  be taken of any occasion when-

 

     (i) it is necessary to make an examination of any part of the machinery aforesaid while it is in motion or, as a result of such examination to carry out lubrication or other adjusting operation while the machinery is in motion, being an examination of operation which it is necessary to be carried out while that part of the machinery is in motion. or

     (ii) in the case of any part of a transmission machinery used in  such  process as may be prescribed (being a process of a continuous nature, the carrying  on of which shall be or is likely to be  substantially  interfered  with  by the stoppage  of that part of the machinery), it  is necessary  to  make an examination  of such  part of the machinery while it is in motion or, as a result of such examination, to  carry  out any mounting or shipping of belts or lubrication, or other adjusting operation while tlle machinery is in motion, and such examination or operation is made or carried out in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 22.


(2) The State Government may by rules prescribe such further precautions as it may consider necessary in respect of any particular machinery or part thereof or exempt, subject to such condition as may be prescribed, for securing the sefety ofthe workers,  any particular machinery or part thereof from the Provisions of this section.

Section 22. Work on or near machinery in motion.-

(1)   Where in any factory it becomes necessary to examine any part of machinery referred to in section 21, while the machinery is in motion, or, as a result of such examination, to carry out-

     (a) in a case referred to in clause (i) of the proviso to sub-section (1)  of section  21, lubrication or other adjusting operation; or

     (b) in a case referred to in clause (ii) of the proviso aforesaid, any mounting or shipping of belts or lubrication or other adjusting operation,

while the machinery is in motion, such - examination or operation shall be made or carried out only by a specially trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting clothing (which shall be supplied by the occupier) whose name has been recorded in the register prescribed in this behalf and who has been furnished with a certificate of his appointment, and while he is so engaged,-

     (a) such worker shall not handle a belt at a moving pulley unless-

o    (i) the belt is not more than fifteen centimetres in width;

o    (ii) the pulley is normally for the purpose of drive and not merely a fiy-wheel or balance wheel (in which case belt is not permissible);

o    (iii) the belt joint is either laced or fiush with the belt;

o    (iv) the belt, including the joint and the pulley rim, are in good repair;

o    (v) there is reasonable clearance between the pulley and any fixed plant or structure;

o    (vi) secure foothold and, where necessary, secure handhold, are provided for the operator; and

o    (vii) any ladder in use for carrying out any examination or operation aforesaid is securely fixed or lashed or is firmly held by a second person ;

     (b) without prejudice to any other provision of this Act relating to the fencing of machinery, every set screw, bolt and key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinions and all spur, worm and other toothed or friction  gearing  in  motion  with which such worker would otherwise  be liable  to  come  into contact, shall  be securely fenced to prevent such contact.

(2)   No woman  or young  person shall be allowed to clean, lubricate  or adjust any part of   a prime-mover or of any transmission machinery while prime-mover or transmission machinery is in motion, or to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of any machine if the cleaning, lubrication or adjustment thereof  would  expose  the  woman  or  young  person to risk of injury from any moving part either of  that  machine  or  of any  adjacent machinery.

(3)   The State Government may, by notification in the Offlcial Gazette prohibit, in any specified factory or class or description of factories, the cleaning, lubricating or adjusting by any person of specified parts of machinery when those palts are in motion.

Section 23. Employment of young persons on dangerous machines.-


(1)    No young person shall be required or allowed to work at any machine to which this section applies, unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers arising  in connection with the machine and the precautions to be observed, and-

(a)   has received sufficient training in work at the machine, or (b) is under adequate supervision by a person who has a thorough knowledge and experience of the machine.

(2)    Sub-section (1) shall apply to such machines as may be prescribed by the State Government, being machines which in its opinion are of such a dangerous character that young persons ought not to work at them unless the foregoing requirements are complied with.

Section 24. Striking gear and devices for cutting off power.­

Cl) In every factory-

     (a) suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliance shall be provided and maintained and used to move driving belts to and from fast and loose pulleys wnich form part of the transmission machinery, and such  gear  or appliances  shall be so constructed, placed and maintained so as to prevent the belt fiom creeping back on to the first pulley;

     (b) driving belts whennot in use shall not be allowed to rest or ride upon shafting in motion.

(2)   In every factory suitable devices for cutting off power in emergencies from running machinerv shall be provided and maintained in every workroom:

Provided that in respect of factories in operation before the commencement  of this Act,  the provisions of this sub-section shall apply only to workrooms  in  which electricity  is used as power.

(3)   When a device, which can inadvertently  shift from  "off" to "on"  position,  is provided  in a factory- to cut off power, arrangements shall be provided for locking  the  device  in safe position to prevent accidental starting of the transmission machinery or other machines to which the device it fitted.

Section 25. Self-acting machines.-

No traversing part of a self-acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon shall, if the space over which it runs is a space over which any person is liable to pass, whether in the course of his employment or otherwise, be allowed to run on its outwards or inward traverse within a distance forty-five centimetres from any fixed structure which is not part of the machine:

Provided that the Chief Inspector may permit the continued use of a machine installed before the commencement of this Act which does not comply with the requirements  of this section on such conditions for ensuring safety as he may think fit to impose.

Section 26. Casing of new machinery.-

(1)   In all machinery driven by power and installed in any factory after the commencement of this Act,-


     (a) every set screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinion shall be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger;

     (b) all spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing which does not require frequent adjustment while in motion shall be completely encased, unless it is so situated as to be as safe as it would be if it were completely encased.

(2)   Whoever sells or lets on hire or, agent of a seller or hirer, causes or procures to be sold or let on hire, for use in a factory any machinery driven by power which does not comply with the provisions of sub-section (1) or any rules made under sub-section (3), shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees or with both.

(3)   The State Government may make rules specifying further safeguards  to  be provided in respect of any other dangerous part of any particular machine or class or description of machines.

Section 27. Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton­ openers.-

No woman or child shall be employed in any part of a factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton-opener is at work:

Provided that if the feed-end of a cotton-opener is in a room separated from the delivery end by a partition extending to the roof or to such height as the Inspector may in any particular case specify in writing, women and children may be employed on the side of the partition where the feed-end is situated.

Section 28. Hoist and lifts.-

(1)  In every factory-

     (a) every hoist and lift shall be-

o    (i) of good mechanical construction, sound material and adequate strength;

o    (ii) properly maintained, and shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of six months, and a register shall be kept containing the prescribed particulars of every such examination;

     (b) every hoistway and liftway shall be sufficiently protected by an enclosure  fitted with gates, and the hoist  or lift and every  such  enclosure  shall  be so  constructed as to prevent any person or thing from  being  trapped  between  any  part  of  the hoist or lift and any fixed structure or moving part;

     (c) the maximum safe working load shall be plainly marked on every hoist or lift, and no load greater than such load shall be carried thereon;

     (d) the cage of every hoist or lift used for carrying persons shall be fitted with a gate on each side from which access is afforded to a landing;

     (e) every gate referred to in clause (b) or clause ( d) shall be fitted with inter­ locking or other efficient device to secure that the gate cannot be opened except when the cage is at the landing and that the cage cannot be moved unless the gate is closed.

(2)   The following additional requirements shall  apply  to  hoists  and  lifts  used  for carrying persons and installed or reconstructed in a factory after the commencement of  this Act, namely:-


     (a) where the cage is supported by rope or chain, there shall be at least two ropes or chains separately connected with the cage and balance weight, and each rope or chain with its attachments shall be capable of carrying the whole weight of the cage together with its maximum load;

     (b) efficient devices shall be provided and maintained capable of supporting the cage together with its maximum load in the event of breakage of the ropes, chains or attachments;

     (c) an efficient automatic device shall be provided and maintained to prevent the cage from over-running.

(3)   The Chief Inspector may permit the continued use of a hoist or lift installed in  a factory before the commencement of this Act which does not fully comply with the provisions of sub-section (1) upon  such conditions  for ensuring  safety  as he may think fit to impose.

(4)   ) The State Government may, if in respect of any class or description of hoist or lift, is of opinion that it would be unreasonable to enforce any requirements of sub-sections

(1) and (2), by order direct that such requirement shall not apply to such class or description of hoist or lift.

Explanation. For the purposes of this section, no lifting machine or appliance shall be deemed to be a hoist or lift unless it has a platform  or cage, the direction or movement of which is restricted by a guide or guides.

Section  29.  Lifting  machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles. -

(1)   In any factory the following provisions shall be complied with in respect of every lifting machine (other than a hoist and lift) and every chain, rope and lifting tackle for the purpose of raising or lowering persons, goods or materials:-

     (a) all parts, including the working gear, whether fixed or movable, of every lifting machine and every chain, rope or lifting tackle shall be-

o    (i) of good construction, sound material and adequate strength and free from defects;

o    (ii) properly maintained; and

o    (iii) thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of twelve months, or at such intervals as the Chief Inspector may specify in writing, and a register shall be kept containing the prescribed particulars of every such examination;

     (b) no lifting machine and no chain, rope or lifting tackle shall, except for the purpose of test, be loaded beyond the safe working load which shall be plainly marked there on together with an identification mark and duly entered in the prescribed register; and where this is not practicable, a table showing the safe working load of every kind and size of lifting machine or chain, rope of lifting tackle in use, shall be displayed in prominent position on the premises;

     (c) while any person is employed or working on or near the wheel track of a travelling crane in any place where he would be liable to be struck by the crane, effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the crane does not approach within six metres of that place.

(2)   The State Government may make rules in respect of any lifting machine or any chain, rope or lifting tackle used in factories-


     (a) prescribing further requirements to be compiled with in addition to those set out in this section ;

     (b) providing for exemption from compliance with all or any of the requirements of this section, where in its opinion, such compliance is unnecessary or impracticable.

(3)   For the purposes of this section a lifting machine or a chain, rope or lifting tackle shall be deemed to have been thoroughly examined if a visual examination supplemented, if necessary, by other means and by  the  dismantling  of parts of the gear, has been carried out as carefully as the conditions permit in order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the safety of the parts examined.

Explanation. In this section,-

     (a) "lifting machine" means a crane, crab, winch, teagle, pully block, gin wheel, transporter or runway;

     (b) "lifting tackle" means any chain sling, rope sling,  hook,  shackle, swivel, coupling, socket, clamp, tray or similar  appliance,  whether  fixed or movable, used in connection  with the raising  or lowering  of persons, or loads by use lifting machines.

Section 30. Revolving machinery. -

(1)   In every factory in which the process of grinding is carried on there shall be permanently affixed to or placed ear each machine  in  use a notice indicating  the maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone  or  abrasive  wheel,  the speed of the shaft or spindle upon which the wheel is mounted, and the diameter of the pulley upon such shaft or spindle necessary to  secure such safe working  peripheral speed.

(2)   The speeds indicated in notices under sub-section (1) shall not be exceeded.

(3)   Effective measure shall be taken in every factory to ensure that the safe working peripheral speed of every revolving vessel, cage, basket, flywheel pulley, disc or similar appliance driven by power is not exceeded.

Section 31. Pressure plant. -

(1)  If in any factory, any plant or machinery or any  part  thereof  is operated  at  a pressure above atmospheric pressure, effective measures shall be taken to  ensure that the safe working pressure of such plant or machinery or part is not exceeded.

(2)   The State Government may make rules providing for the examination and testing of  any plant or machinery such as is referred to in sub-section  (1)  and  prescribing  such other safety measures in relation thereto as may in its opinion,  be necessary  in  any factory or class or description of factories.

(3)   The State Government may, by rules, exempt, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, any part of any plant or machinery referred  to  in sub-section  (1)  from the provisions of this section.

Section 32. Floors, stairs and means of access. - In every factory-


     (a) all floors, steps, stairs, passengers and gangways  shall  be of sound construction, and properly maintained and shall  be  kept  free  from  obstructions and substances likely to cause persons to slip and where it is necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be provided with substantial handrails;

     (b) there shall, so far as is reasonably  practicable,  be  provided,  and  maintained safe means of access to every place at which any person is at any time required to work;

     (c) when any person has to work at a height from where he is likely to fall, provision shall be made, so far as is reasonably practicable, by fencing or otherwise, to ensure the safety of the person so working.

Section 33. Pits, sumps, openings in floors, etc. -

(1)   In every factory every fixed vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening in the ground or in a floor which, by reason of its depth, situation, construction or contents, is or may be a source of danger, shall be either securely covered or securely fenced.

(2)   The State Government may, by order in writing, exempt, subject  to  such conditions  as may be prescribed, any factory or class or description of factories in respect of any vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening from compliance with the provisions of this section.

Section 34. Excessive weights. -

(1)   No person shall be employed in any factory  to lift, carry  or move any load so heavy  as to be likely to cause him an injury.

(2)   The State Government may make rules prescribing the  maximum  weights  which may be lifted, carried or moved by adult men, adult women, adolescents and children employed in factories or in any class or description of factories or in carrying on in any specified process.

Section 35. Protection of eyes. -

In respect of any such manufacturing process carried on in any factory as may be prescribed, being a process which involves-

     (a) risk of injury to the eyes from particles or fragments thrown off in the course of the process, or

     (b) risk to the eyes by reason of exposure  to  excessive  light, the State Government may by rules require that effective screens or suitable  goggles  shall be provided for the protection  of persons  employed  on, or in the  immediate vicinity of, the process.

Section 36. Precautions against dangerous fumes, gases, etc.-

Cl) No person shall be required or allowed to  enter  any  chamber,  tank,  vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space in any factory  in  which any gas, fume, vapour  or dust is likely to be present to such an extent as to involve risk to persons being  overcome thereby, unless it is provided with a manhole of adequate  size or other effective  means  of egress.


(2)    No person shall be required or allowed to  enter any confined  space as is referred  to in sub-section (1), until all practicable measures have been taken to remove any gas, fume, vapour or dust, which may be present so as to bring  its  level  within  the permissible limits and to prevent any ingress of such gas, fume, vapour or dust  and unless-

     (a) a certificate in writing has been given by a competent person, based on a test carried out by himself that the space  is reasonably  free  from  dangerous  gas, fume, vapour or dust: or

     (b) such person is wearing suitable breathing apparatus and a belt securely attached to a rope the free end of which is held by a person outside the confined space.

Section 36A. Precautions regarding the use of portable electric light.­

In any factory-

     (a) no portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage exceeding twenty-four volts shall be permitted for use inside any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space unless adequate safety devices are provided; and

     (b) if any inflammable gas, fume or dust is likely to be present in such chambers tank, vat, pipe, flue or other confined space, no lamp or light other than that of flame-proof construction shall be permitted to be used therein.

Section 37.  Explosive or inflammable  dust, gas, etc. -

Where in any factory any manufacturing process produces dust, gas, fume or vapour of such character and to such extent as to be likely to explode on ignition, all practicable measures shall be taken to prevent any such explosion by-

     (a) effective enclosure of the plant or machinery used in the process;

     (b) removal or prevention of the accumulation of such dust, gas, fume or vapour;

     (c) exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition.

(2)   Where in any factory the plant or machinery used in  a process  such as is referred to  in sub-section (1), is not so constructed as to withstand  the  probable  pressure  which such an explosion as aforesaid would  produce,  all practicable  measures  shall  be taken to restrict the spread and effects of the explosion by the provision in the  plant  or machinery of chokes, baffles, vents or other effective appliances.

(3)   Where any part of the plant or machinery in a factory contains any explosive or inflammable gas or vapour under pressure greater  than  atmospheric  pressure,  that part shall not be opened except in accordance with the following provisions, namely:-

     (a) before the fastening of any joint of any pipe connected with the part or the fastening of the cover of any opening into the part is loosened, any flow of the gas or vapour into the part of any such pipe shall be effectively stopped by a stop­ valve or other means;

     (b) before any such fastening as aforesaid is removed, all practicable  measures shall be taken to reduce the pressure of the gas or vapour in the part or pipe to a atmospheric pressure;


     (c) where any such fastening as aforesaid has been loosened or removed effective measures shall be taken to prevent any explosive or  inflammable  gas or  vapour from entering the part or pipe until the fastening has been secured, or, as the case may be, securely replaced:

 

Provided that the provisions of this sub-section shall not apply in the case of plant or machinery installed in the open air.

 

(4)    ) No plant, tank or vessel which contains or has contained any explosive or inflammable substance shall be subjected, in any factory, to any welding, brazing, soldering or cutting operation which involves the application of heat unless adequate measures have first been taken to remove such substance and any fumes arising therefrom or to render such substance and fumes non- explosive or non-inflammable and no such substance shall be allowed to enter such plant, tank or vessel after any such operation until the metal has cooled sufficiently to prevent any risk of igniting the substance.

 

(5)   The State Government may by rules exempt, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, any factory or class or description of factories  from compliance  with all or any of the provisions of this section.

Section 38. Precautions in case of fire. -

(1)  In every factory, all practicable measures shall be taken to prevent outbreak of fire and its spread, both internally and externally, and to provide and maintain-

 

     (a) safe means of escape for all persons in the event of a fire, and

     (b) the necessary equipment and facilities for extinguishing fire.

 

(2)   Effective measures shall be taken to ensure that in every factory all the workers are familiar  with the means of escape in  case  of  fire and have been adequately  trained in the routine to be following in such cases.

 

(3)   The State Government may make rules, in respect of any factory or class or description of factories, requiring the measures to be adopted to give effect to the provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2).

 

(4)   Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (a) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), if the Chief Inspector, having regard to the nature of the work carried on in any factory, the construction of such factory, special risk to life or safety, or any other circumstances, is of the opinion that the measures provided in the factory, whether as prescribed or not, for the purposes of clause (a) of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), are inadequate, he may, by order in writing, require that such additional measures as he may consider reasonable and necessary, be provided in the factory before such date as is specified in the order.

 

Section 39. Power to require specifications of defective parts or tests of stability. -

If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building  or any  part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it may be dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve on the  occupier  or  manager  or  both of the  factory an order in writing requiring him before a specified date-


     (a) to furnish such drawings, specifications and other particulars as may be necessary to determine whether such buildings, ways, machinery or plant can be used with safety, or

     (b) to carry out such tests in such manner as may be specified in the order, and to inform the Inspector of the results thereof.

Section 40. Safety of buildings and machinery. -

(1)    If it appears to  the  Inspector  that any building  or part of a  building  or any part  of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it is dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve  on the  occupier  or  manager  or  both of the  factory an order in writing specifying the measures, which in his opinion should be adopted and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.

(2)    If it  appears to the Inspector that the use of any building or part of a building or  any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory involves imminent danger to human life or safety he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order in writing prohibiting its use until it has been properly repaired or altered.

 

Section 40A. Maintenance of buildings. -

If it appears to the  Inspector  that any building  or part of a  building  in a  factory  is in such a state of disrepair as is likely to lead to conditions detrimental to the health and welfare of the workers, he may serve on the  occupier or manager or both of the factory  an order in writing specifying the measures which in his opinion should be taken and requiring the same to be carried out before such date as is specified in the order.

Section 408. Safety Officers. -

(1)   In every factory-

 

     (i) wherein one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed, or

     (ii) wherein, in the opinion of the State Government, any manufacturing process or operation is carried on, which process or operation involves any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease or any other hazard to health, to the person employed in the factory,

 

the occupier shall, if so required by the State Government by notification in Official Gazette, employ such number of Safety Officers as may be specified in that notification.

 

(2)   The duties, qualifications and conditions of service of Safety Officers shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government.

Section 41. Power to make rules to supplement this Chapter. -

The State Government may make rules requiring the provision in any factory or in any class or description of factories of such further devices and  measures  for  securing safety of persons employed therein as it may deem necessary.


 

CHAPTER IVA.- Provisions relating to Hazardous Processes


Section 41A. Constitution of Site Appraisal Committees. -

(1)   The State Government may, for purposes of advising it to consider applications for grant of permission for the initial location of a factory  involving  a  hazardous  process or for the expansion of any such factory, appoint a Site Appraisal Committee consisting of-

 

     (a) the Chief Inspector of the State who shall be its Chairman;

     (b) a representative of the Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution appointed by the Central Government under section 3 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974) ;

     (c) a representative of the Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution referred to in section 3 of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981);

     (d) a representative of the State Board appointed under section 4 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974);

     (e) a representative of the State Board for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution referred to in section 5 of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981);

     (f) a representative of the Department of Environment in the State;

     (g) a representative of the Meteorological Department of the Government of India;

     (h) an expert in the field of occupational health; and

     (i) a representative of the Town Planning Department of the State Government,

 

and not more than five other members who may be co-opted by the State Government who shall be- ,

 

     (i) a scientist having specialised knowledge of the hazardous process which will be involved in the factory,

     (ii) a representative of the local authority within whose jurisdiction the factory is to be established, and

     (iii) not more than three other persons as deemed fit by the State Government

 

(2)   The Site Appraisal Committee shall examine an application for the establishment of a factory involving hazardous process and make its recommendation to the State Government within a period of ninety days of the receipt of such application in the prescribed form.

 

(3)    Where any process relates to a factory owned or controlled by the Central Government or to a corporation or a company owned or controlled by the Central Government, the State Government shall co-opt in the Site Appraisal Committee a representative nominated by the Central Government as a member of that Committee.

 

(4)   The Site Appraisal Committee shall have power to call for any information from the person making an application  for  the establishment  or expansion  of a factory  involving a hazardous process.

 

(5)    Where the State Government has granted approval to an application for the establishment of expansion of a factory involving a hazardous process, it shall not be necessary for an applicant to obtain a further approval from the Central Board  or  the State Board established under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974  (6 of 1974) and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 {14 of 1981).

Section 41B. Compulsory disclosure of information by the occupier.­


(1)    The occupier of every factory involving a hazardous process shall disclose in the manner prescribed, all informations regarding dangers including health hazards and the measures to overcome such hazards arising from the exposure to or handling of the materials or substances in the  manufacture,  transportation, storage  and  other processes, to the workers employed  in the  factory, the Chief Inspector,  the local authority, within whose jurisdiction the factory is situate, and the general public in the vicinity.

 

(2)    The occupier shall, at the time of registering the factory involving a  hazardous process lay down a detailed policy with respect to the health and safety of the workers employed therein and intimate such policy  to  the  Chief Inspector  and the  local authority and, thereafter, at such intervals as may be prescribed, inform the Chief Inspector and the local authority of any change made in the said policy.

 

(3)    The information furnished under sub-section (1)  shall include  accurate  information as to the quantity, specifications and other characteristics of wastes and the manner of their disposal.

 

(4)    ) Every occupier shall, with the approval of the Chief Inspector, draw up an on-site emergency plan and detailed disaster control measures for his factory  and make known  to the workers employed therein and to the general public living in the vicinity of the factory, the safety measures required to be taken in the  event  of an accident  taking place.

(5)    Every occupier of a factory shall,-

 

     (a) if such factory engaged in a hazardous process on the commencement of the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987 within a period of thirty days of such commencement; and

     (b) if such factory purposes to engage in a hazardous process at  any time after such commencement, within a period of thirty days before the commencement of such process,

 

inform the Chief Inspector of the nature and details of the process in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed.

 

(6)    Where any occupier of a factory contravenes the provisions of sub-section (5), the license issued under section 6 to such factory shall, notwithstanding any penalty to which the occupier of the factory shall be subjected to under the provisions of this Act, be liable for cancellation.

 

(7)    The occupier of a factory involving a hazardous process shall, with the previous approval of the Chief Inspector, lay down measures for  the  handling  usage, transportation and storage of hazardous substances inside the factory premises and the disposal of such substances outside the factory  premises and publicise them in the manner prescribed among the workers and the general public living in the vicinity.

Section 41C. Specific responsibility of the occupier in relation to hazardous processes.-

Every occupier of a factory involving any hazardous process shall-


     (a) maintain accurate and up-to-date health records or, as the case may be, medical records, of the workers in the factory who are exposed to any chemical, toxic or any other harmful substances which are manufactured, stored, handled or transported and such records shall be accessible to the workers subject to such conditions as may be prescribed;

     (b) appoint persons who possess qualifications and experience in handling hazardous substances and are competent to supervise such handling within the factory and to provide at the working place all the necessary facilities for protecting the workers in the manner prescribed:

Provided that where any question arises as to the qualifications and experience of a person so appointed, the decision of the Chief Inspector shall be final;

     (c) provide for medical examination of every worker-

o    (i) before such worker is assigned to a job involving the handling of, or working with, a hazardous substance, and

o    (ii) while continuing in such job, and after he has ceased  to  work in  such  job, at intervals not exceeding twelve months in such manner  as may  be prescribed,

Section 41D. Power of Central Government to appoint Inquiry Committee.-

(1)   The Central Government may, in the event of the occurrence of an extraordinary situation involving a factory engaged in a hazardous process, appoint an Inquiry Committee to inquire into the standards of health and safety observed in the factory with a view to finding out the causes of any failure or neglect in the adoption of ally measures or standards prescribed for the health and safety of the workers employed in the factory or the general public affected, or likely to be affected, due to such failure or neglect and for the prevention and recurrence of such extraordinary situations in future in such factory or elsewhere.

(2)   The Committee appointed under sub-section (1) shall consist of a Chairman and two other members and the terms of reference of the Committee and the tenure of office of its members shall be such as may be determined by the Central Government according to the requirements of the situation.

(3)   The recommendations of the Committee shall be advisory in nature.

Section 41E. Emergency standards.-

(1)   Where the Central Government is satisfied that no standards of safety have been prescribed in respect of a hazardous process or class of hazardous processes, or where the standards so prescribed are inadequate, it may direct the Director-General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes or any Institution specialised in matters relating to standards of safety in hazardous processes, to lay down emergency standards for enforcement of suitable standards in respect of such hazardous processes.

(2)   The emergency standards laid down under sub-section (1) shall, until they are incorporated in the rules made under this Act, be enforceable and have the same effect as if they had been incorporated in the rules made under this Act.


Section 41F. Permissible limits of exposure of chemical and toxic substances.­

(1)    The maximum permissible threshold limits of exposure of chemical and toxic substances in manufacturing processes (whether hazardous or otherwise) in any factory shall be of the value indicated in the Second Schedule.

 

(2)    The Central Government may, at any time, for the purpose of giving effect to any scientific proof obtained from specialised institutions or experts in the field, by notification in the Official Gazette, make suitable changes in the said Schedule.

Section 41G. Workers' participation in safety management.-

( l) The occupier shall, in every factory where a hazardous process takes place, or where hazardous substances are used or handled, set up a Safety Committee consisting of equal number of representatives of workers and management to promote co-operation between the workers and the management in maintaining proper safety and health at work and to review periodically the measures taken in that behalf.

 

Provided that the State Government may, by order in writing and for reasons to be recorded, exempt the occupier of any factory or class of factories from setting up such Committee.

 

(2) The composition of the Safety Committee, the tenure of office of its members and their rights and duties shall be such as may be prescribed.

 

Section 41H. Right of workers to warn about imminent danger.-

(1)    Where the workers employed in any factory engaged in a hazardous process have reasonable apprehension that there is a likelihood of imminent danger to their lives or health due to any accident, they may, bring the same to the notice of the occupier, agent, manager or any other person who is in-charge of the factory or the process concerned directly or through their representatives in the Safety Committee and simultaneously bring the same to the notice of the Inspector.

 

(2)   Tt shall be the duty of such occupier, agent, manager or the person in-charge of the factory or process to take immediate remedial action if he is satisfied about the existence of such imminent danger and send a report forth-with of the action taken to the nearest Inspector.

(3)    If the occupier, agent, manager or the person in-charge referred to in sub-section

(2) is not satisfied about the existence of any imminent danger as apprehended by the workers, he shall, nevertheless, refer the matter forth-with  to  the nearest  Inspector whose decision on the question of the existence of such imminent danger shall be final.

 

NOTES.- New Chapter IVA inserted in the Act.- The Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987, has inserted this new chapter in the Act after Chapter IV.

 

The new Chapter lays down provisions relating to hazardous process in sections 41A to 41H.

 

Under provisions of section 41A of this Chapter the State Government in empowered to form a Site Appraisal Committee to examine the application for establishment of a factory involving hazardous process and send its


recommendations to the State Government. The chairman and members of the Committee will be persons as specified in the section. Powers of the Committee are also specified. The proposal for establishment or expansion of such a factory, if approved by the State Government, has to be further approved by the authorities mentioned in the section. Duties and responsibilities of the occupier of such a factory have been specified in sections 41B and 41C.

Section 41D empowers the Central Government to appoint Inquiry Committee to enquire whether such a factory is observing the standards of health and safety of workers as well as of the general public as prescribed and make recommendations. Its recommendations shall be however of advisory nature The Committee shall have a chairman and two members. The Central Government shall determine the tenure of office of the members.

 

Section 41E empowers the Central Government to take certain steps for laying down emergency standards and enforcement thereof in case no standard of safety has been prescribed for hazardous processes.

 

Section 41F enjoins that the maximum permissible limits of exposure of chemical and toxic substances in manufacturing processes (whether hazardous or otherwise) in any factory shall be of the value indicated in the Second Schedule. The section empowers the Central Government to make suitable changes in the said Schedule by notification in the Official Gazette.

 

Section 41G requires the occupier of a factory in which a hazardous process takes place to set up a Safety Committee with equal number of representatives of workers for the purpose of enforcing the safety measures in the factory. The State Government may, however, exempt any factory for reasons to be recorded in writing, any factory from setting up such a Committee.

 

Section 41H gives the right to workers of a factory in which a  hazardous process takes place to bring to the notice of the occupier, agent, manager or any other person who is in-charge of the  factory  or the Inspector  of the area, of their apprehension about any imminent danger and the person or persons informed must enquire immediately on receipt of the information and take remedical action.


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